Cholestasis : Overview, Causes, & Risk Factors

Alternate Names : Intrahepatic cholestasis, Extrahepatic cholestasis

Definition

Cholestasis is any condition in which the flow of bile from the liver is blocked.

Overview, Causes, & Risk Factors

There are many causes of cholestasis.

Extrahepatic cholestasis occurs outside the liver. It can be caused by:

  • Bile duct tumors
  • Cysts
  • Narrowing of the bile duct (strictures)
  • Stones in the common bile duct
  • Pancreatitis
  • Pancreatic tumor or pseudocyst
  • Pressure on an organ due to a nearby mass or tumor
  • Primary sclerosing cholangitis

Intrahepatic cholestasis occurs inside the liver. It can be caused by:

  • Alcoholic liver disease
  • Amyloidosis
  • Bacterial abscess in the liver
  • Being fed through a vein (IV)
  • Lymphoma
  • Pregnancy
  • Primary biliary cirrhosis
  • Primary sclerosing cholangitis
  • Sarcoidosis
  • Serious infections that have spread through the bloodstream (sepsis)
  • Tuberculosis
  • Viral hepatitis
  • Sjogren syndrome

Certain medications can also cause cholestasis. See: Drug-induced cholestasis

Pictures & Images

Gallstones

The gallbladder is an organ that normally functions to store bile excreted from the liver. Bile is a solution composed of water, bile salts, lecithin, cholesterol and some other small solutes. Changes in the relative concentration of these components may cause precipitation from solution and formation of a nidus, or nest, around which gallstones are formed. Gallstones can become large and block the opening from the gallbladder or cystic duct. This produces pain in the right upper quadrant or midepigastrum (above the belly button) in the abdomen that feels like cramping.


Review Date : 9/28/2008
Reviewed By : David C. Dugdale, III, MD, Professor of Medicine, Division of General Medicine, Department of Medicine, University of Washington School of Medicine. Also reviewed by David Zieve, MD, MHA, Medical Director, A.D.A.M., Inc.

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