Dysentery The Signs, Symptoms and Treatment

Dysentery is spread among humans through contaminated food and water. Once a person is infected, the infectious organism lives in the intestines and is passed in the stool of the infected person. With some infections, animals can also be infected and spread the disease to humans.

Causes of dysentery

Dysentery is linked to poor sanitation conditions and is spread mainly via contaminated food and water. When a person is infected, the organism lives in his/her intestines and is passed in the stool of the infected person. If

this comes in contact with food or water, it gets contaminated.

Most commonly, dysentery is caused by drinking water or eating food from sources contaminated with feces containing the pathogens. Swimming in contaminated water may also result in dysentery. For this reason, dysentery occurs most frequently in people traveling to developing countries and in children who touch infected human or animal feces without proper hand washing.
It is most commonly caused by viral, bacterial or protozoan infections.

Symptoms of dysentery

Symptoms of dysentery can last for five days or even longer. For some, the symptoms might be mild, while others suffer from severe diarrhoea and or vomiting that could potentially cause dehydration.

Abdominal bloating
Abdominal pain
Bloody diarrhoea
Flatulence
Nausea, with or without vomiting

However, if the infection is severe, one might experience other symptoms due to dehydration:

Decreased urine output
Dry skin and mucous membranes
Excessive thirst
Fever and chills
Muscle cramps
Loss of strength
Weight loss

Treatment of dysentery

Clinical diagnosis is necessary to control dysentery. In most cases, antibiotics are used to treat dysentery. Make sure you take the full-course to avoid relapse.
In addition, make sure your body is hydrated by drinking enough fluids. And get adequate rest.

Some tips to prevent dysentery

Avoid swallowing water in swimming pools or other recreational water sources
Make sure you drink only purified water.
Drink packaged drinking water when travelling, backpacking, camping or hiking
Wash your hands with an antibacterial soap after using the bathroom, changing diapers, before preparing and eating food, backpacking, camping or hiking
Avoiding swallowing water in swimming pools, hot tubs, or other recreational water sources
Drinking only purified water when visiting developing countries
Using purified water for brushing your teeth and washing food when visiting developing countries.

Food Poisoning: Symptoms, Causes and Treatment

Food poisoning is the result of eating food contaminated with bacteria or other pathogens like  parasites od toxit agents or viruses. Your symptoms may range from upset stomach to diarrhea, fever, vomiting, abdominal cramps and dehydration. Food poisoning normally lasts for two to three days and in some rare cases a person has to be admitted to the hospital as well.As we know, when you get food poisoning, the

symptoms of food poisoning is realized like vomiting and diarrhoea, and this is because the condition affects the digestive system. There are other symptoms that may also happen, including:

Fever

Nausea

Headaches

Stomach cramps

Vomiting and diarrhoea

These symptoms, along with loss of appetite, can persist for several days. However you need to remember that if this problem become more serious from the above symptoms will lead to be dehydration – if suffered repeatedly – will result in significant fluid loss. This is why medical treatment may be required, especially in more severe cases.

 So where is the cause of food poisoning? There are over 250 known diseases can be transmitted through food. It is important to understand that food poisoning can be caused by many different bacteria and conditions, and also that different types have different levels of severity. One important factor in diagnosing food poisoning is knowing the bacteria involved, as some have longer incubation periods than others. However, according to experts the causes of food poisoning can be divided into two categories: infectious agents and toxic agents:

Infectious agents include viruses, bacteria, and parasites.

Toxic agents include poisonous mushrooms, improperly prepared exotic foods (such as barracuda – ciguatera toxin), or pesticides on fruits and vegetables.

Besides, we need to have some knowledge about some following causes:

Staphylococcus Aureus – this common bacteria causes many cases of food poisoning every year, and those who eat food contaminated with it can become ill as little as one hour afterwards.

Bacillus cereus – this unusual bacteria is confined to cases of poorly cooked rice

Clostridium Perfringens – not a bacterium but a spore, it occurs where food has been stored in warm conditions, and causes serious diarrhoea within a few hours.

A part from these above things, food usually becomes contaminated from poor sanitation or preparation. Food handlers who do not wash their hands after using the bathroom or have infections themselves often cause contamination. Improperly packaged food stored at the wrong temperature also promotes contamination.

Once, you get food poisoining, you need to have some treatments like:

Do not eat solid food while nauseous or vomiting but drink plenty of fluids.

Small, frequent sips of clear liquids are the best way to stay hydrated.

Avoid alcoholic, caffeinated, or sugary drinks.

Sports drinks such as Gatorade and Powerade are fine for adults if they are diluted with water because at full strength they contain too much sugar, which can worsen diarrhea.

Home remedies to treat nausea or diarrhea such as tea with lemon and ginger can be used for relief from symptoms.

After successfully tolerating fluids, eating should begin slowly, when nausea and vomiting have stopped. Plain foods that are easy on the stomach should be started in small amounts. Initially consider eating rice, wheat, breads, potatoes, low-sugar cereals, lean meats, and chicken (not fried). Milk can be given safely, but in some cases it  does not advised to use.

Remember to eat cooked food  as well drink boiled water a long with  washing your hand whenever you eat are the best way to help you preventing food poisoning.

Arm Pain

Arm pain is any type of pain or discomfort in the arm that is considered the area from the shoulder joint to the wrist joint. Your arms are constructed of bones, joints, muscles, tendons, ligaments, nerves and blood vessels, all of which are subject to injury, infection, or other conditions that can be painful. However, arm pain doesn’t have to originate in your arm; spinal problems or injuries can cause pain that you feel in your arm but that actually arises in your neck and upper back. Pain that extends into your left arm could even be a signs, which indicates heart attack.

Symptoms:

• Cramps

• Muscle weakness

• Twitching

• Increased skin temperature

• Swelling (refer to Arm Swelling)

• Itching

• Heat

• Change in skin color

 Common causes of arm pain include:

• Brachial plexus injury

• Broken arm

• Broken wrist/broken hand

• Bursitis

• Cancer (malignancy), primary or metastatic

• Carpal tunnel syndrome

• De Quervain’s tenosynovitis

• Herniated disk

• Rotator cuff injury

• Sprains and strains

• Tendinitis

• Tennis elbow

• Thoracic outlet syndrome

• Ulnar nerve entrapment

Causes shown here are commonly associated with this symptom. Work with your doctor or other health care professional for an accurate diagnosis.

Arm Pain Remedies:

* To get relief from the pain, use an ice compress and press it on the affected area 2,3 times a day.

* Keep your arm lifted to reduce the amount of swelling in your arm.

* Try to rest the arm and use it least possible.

* If the arm has swelled, then it must be kept elevated. This position would help in the reduction of the swelling of the arm.

* To heal your arm faster, rest your arm by taking a break from your normal activities.

* The arm must be in a neutral position and one must not feel that they are stuck up into the shoulders. The wrists must be kept relaxed.

Measles Symptoms in Children

Measles is a very infectious illness caused by a virus – a viral infection caused by the rubeola virus. The virus stays in the mucus of the nose and throat of an infected child or adult. The infected person is infectious for four days before the rash appears, and continues so for about four to five days later.

The  symptoms of measles infection usually begin 10 to 12 days after exposure, which is known as the incubation period. Signs and symptoms of measles typically include:

Coryza – runny nose.

Persistent dry cough.

Conjunctivitis – swollen eyelids, inflamed eyes.

Watery eyes.

Photophobia – sensitivity to light.

Sneezing.

Fever – this may be mild to severe and can reach 105F (40.6C) for a number of days. Fever may drop, and then rise again when the rash appears.

Koplik’s spots – very small grayish-white spots with bluish-white centers in the mouth, insides of cheeks, and throat.

Aches generally all over the body. Especialy, pain in joints of the hands, wrists, and knees.

Rash – 3 to 4 days after initial symptoms a reddish-brown spotty rash appears. The rash can last for over a week. It usually starts behind the ears and spreads all over the head and neck. After a couple of days it spreads to the rest of the body, including the legs. As the little spots grow many of them will join together.

 Prevention

Children should be given the MMR (Mumps, Measles, Rubella) vaccine when they are between 12 and 15 months of age, and then again (a booster) before entering school when they are 4-6 years old. Babies carry their mother’s immunity for a few months after birth if their mothers are immune.

Occasionally babies require vaccination prior to they are 12 months old. This may happen if there is a dangerous outbreak in their area, or if they are going to move to an area with a serious outbreak. In such cases they could receive the vaccination from the age of 6 months, and will need a booster when they are 12 months old.

Strep throat symptoms

Strep throat is just one of several possible causes of throat infection and sore throat. Although strep throat is most common in children and adolescents, it can affect people of all ages.

Though many people use the terms sore throat, tonsillitis, and strep throat interchangeably, there are significant clinical differences between these problems. Awareness of the differences can give people a better idea of how and when to be concerned and when to look for advice from a doctor.

What causes strep throat?

Strep throat has several causes. The most common causes of strep throat are bacterial infections of the throat and the surrounding structures. Any inflammation or infection of the pharynx, tonsils, esophagus (the food pipe), or larynx (the top opening part of the windpipe) can cause strep throat.

Common symptoms of signs strep throat

Throat infection with strep bacteria is contagious and can cause a variety of symptoms associated with inflammation of the throat and its nearby structures. Symptoms usually begin within a few days (1-4 days) after contracting the infection (incubation period).

•        Throat pain

•        Red and swollen tonsils, sometimes with white patches or streaks of pus

•        Difficulty swallowing

•        Tiny red spots on the soft or hard palate – the area at the back of the roof of the mouth

•        Swollen, tender lymph glands (nodes) in your neck

•        Headache

•        Rash

•        Fever

•        Stomachache and sometimes vomiting, especially in younger children

•        Fatigue

It’s possible for you or your child to have many of these signs and symptoms, but not have strep throat. The cause of these signs and symptoms could be a viral infection or some other kind of sickness. That’s the reason why your doctor typically tests specifically for strep throat.

It’s also possible to have the bacteria that can cause strep in your throat without having a sore throat. A few people are carriers of strep, which means they can transfer the bacteria on to others, but the bacteria are not currently causing them sick. It’s also possible to have the bacteria that can cause strep in your throat without having a sore throat. Some people are carriers of strep, which means they can pass the bacteria to others, but the bacteria are not currently making them sick.

 

Common Shoulder Pains Easily Suffered

Suffering from shoulder pains means involving an extremely common ailment. The common symptoms are the followings:

Shoulder tendonitis

Also known as shoulder bursitis which is not a single symptoms, it is a set of symptoms under a named terminology as “impingement syndrome”. This pain will come with overhead activities or while sleeping, and the outside of the shoulder/upper arm sometimes suffers from painful condition.

Frozen shoulder

Most often, this pain type increases as aging and it is seen more popular among women than men. Suffering from this condition, the shoulder joint becomes stiff and scarred.

Shoulder instability

 Suffers will have feel of uncomfortable sensation that their shoulder may be about to slide out of place (“apprehension” in physical term). There are two common types, shoulder subluxation and shoulder dislocation. Both cause the instable structure of shoulder and may result in shoulder joint loss.

Shoulder Separation

Known as AC separation, these injuries are the result of a disruption of the acromioclavicular joint. Sufferers will feel the most painful with swelling and bruising shoulder. This symptom is classified into type I – IV that is graded according to the severity of the injury and the position of the displaced bones.

Shoulder arthritis

It is not as common as knee or hip arthritis, however, this is not reason you can underestimate this condition. Stiffness of the shoulder, swelling of the joint or any difficulties in moving, go to see your doctors as soon as possible before more severe condition may require a joint replacement surgery.

All these shoulder pains above are the most common symptoms. If you start having one of the signs, must do is to make an accurate diagnosis of the cause of your symptoms so that appropriate treatment can be directed.

Stomach Abdominal Pain: overview, symptoms & treatment

Definition

Abdominal pain is pain that is felt in the abdomen. Abdominal pain, however, might be originated from the tissues of the abdominal wall that surround the abdominal cavity (such as the skin and abdominal wall muscles), the term abdominal pain generally is known as a pain arising from organs (including the stomach, small intestine, colon, liver, gallbladder, spleen, and pancreas) within the abdominal cavity.

Rarely, some pains arising from organs that are close to, but not within, the abdominal cavity, also lead to such symptoms. For instance, abdominal pain are occurred by conditions of the lower lungs, the kidneys, and the uterus or ovaries. On the other hand, it also is possible for pain from organs within the abdomen to be felt outside of the abdomen. For example, the pain of pancreatic inflammation may be felt in the back. These latter types of pain are named “referred” pain because the pain does not originate in the location that it is felt. Rather, the cause of the pain is located away from where it is felt.

Abdominal pain
Abdominal pain

 

Causes

Abdominal pain is caused by inflammation, distention of an organ, or by loss of the blood supply to an organ. Abdominal pain in IBS may be caused by contraction of the intestinal muscles or hyper-sensitivity to normal intestinal activities.

Symptoms

It is easily seen from some locations of the pain: in the lower, upper abdomen and right gall bladder.

You may feel:

  • Waves of crampy abdominal pain due to contractions of the intestinal muscles and distention of the intestine.
  • True cramp-like pain suggests vigorous contractions of the intestines.
  • Steady (constant) upper abdominal pain that lasts between 30 minutes and several hours.
  • Severe, unrelenting, steady pain in the upper abdomen and upper back

Diagnosis

The cause of abdominal pain is diagnosed on the basis of the characteristics of the pain, physical examination, and testing. Occasionally, surgery is necessary for diagnosis.

Treatments

Basing on particular cause will have a treatment of abdominal pain. This can range from medications for inflammation, GERD, or ulcers, to antibiotics for infections, to changes in individual behavior for abdominal pain caused by certain foods or beverages. It is essential for a surgery in some cases such as appendicitis and a hernia.

How to Minimize Swollen Extremities (Edema) during Pregnancy?

Pregnant women often get edema and this sometimes let them down because of their appearance. This article presents some tips to minimize swollen extremities during pregnancy.

Edema (also known as dropsy or fluid retention) is swelling caused by the accumulation of abnormally large amounts of fluid in the spaces between the body’s cells or in the circulatory system. It is most common in feet, ankles, and legs. It can also affect the face and hands. Edema is a symptom, not a disease or disorder but it can make you irritating.

Pregnant women often get edema because they are retaining more water. Their ankles and feet become swollen. The pressure slows the return of blood from their legs, causing it to pool, which forces fluid from their veins into the tissues of their feet and ankles.

Edema in the ankles and feet during pregnancy, especially in the third trimester is normal. Pregnant women may also have some mild swelling in their hands. However, call your doctor or if you notice that one leg is significantly more swollen than the other, especially if you have any pain or tenderness in your calf or thigh, or if you notice swelling in your face or puffiness around your eyes, more than slight swelling of your hands, or excessive or sudden swelling of your feet or ankles, which may be a sign of preeclampsia, a serious condition.

Here are a few tips to minimize swollen extremities (edema) during pregnancy:

•        Put your feet up whenever possible. At work, keep a stool or pile of books under your desk. At home, lie on your left side when possible.

•        Don’t cross your legs or ankles while sitting.

•        Stretch your legs frequently while sitting: Stretch your leg out, heel first, and gently flex your foot to stretch your calf muscles. Rotate your ankles and wiggle your toes.

•        Take regular breaks and have a short walk from sitting or standing. Wear comfortable shoes that stretch to accommodate the swelling.

•        Don’t wear socks or stockings that have tight bands around the ankles or calves.

•        Try waist-high maternity support stockings. Put them on before you get out of bed in the morning.

•        Drink plenty of water.

•        Exercise regularly, especially by walking, swimming, or riding an exercise bike. Or try a water aerobics class.

•        Eat well, and avoid junk food.

•        Do not worry about your appearance because of edema during pregnancy too much because the swelling will disappear fairly rapidly after you deliver your baby.

 

How to Cope With Stomach Flu Symptoms

WEDNESDAY, Jan. 12 (HealthDay News) — If you get the stomach flu (also known as viral gastroenteritis), there are a number of things you can do to cope with the illness, an expert suggests.

Doctor offers tips to aid patients’ recovery.

“This virus causes nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, fatigue, fever, and head and muscle aches. Although the virus itself most often is not a serious health threat, it can cause serious complications like dehydration, which can be especially dangerous for young children and older adults,” Dr. Christopher Zipp, a family physician at the University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey’s School of Osteopathic Medicine, said in a university news release.

Zipp offered the following tips for coping with stomach flu:

  • Avoid dehydration by consuming plenty of fluids. The best choices are water or half-strength juices. It’s best to avoid sodas or sports drinks, but they can be given to people who can’t tolerate the recommended fluids.
  • Relieve body aches and fever by taking over-the-counter, non-aspirin pain relievers such as acetaminophen, as directed.
  • Rest as much as possible.
  • Take steps to prevent spread of the virus. Throw away used tissues immediately and wash your hands often. Soiled bed linens or clothes should be washed separately from other laundry.
  • Make sure you’re fully recovered before heading back to work or school. People with the stomach flu can still be contagious for up to 72 hours after they feel better.

“Keep in mind that this illness is caused by a virus. Antibiotics, which work against bacterial infections, will not help you to recover,” Zipp explained.

“Most people will begin to feel better after a couple of days, but don’t hesitate to contact your physician if you or a family member experiences extreme symptoms, such as uncontrolled vomiting or a high fever that persists and does not respond to over-the-counter medications,” he added.

More information

The U.S. National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases has more about viral gastroenteritis.

SOURCE: University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey, news release, Jan. 7, 2011

Copyright © 2011 HealthDay. All rights reserved.

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What are symptoms of Depression?

Depression is a disorder that causes prolonged deep sadness, anxiousness or hopelessness in its victims. Although depression symptoms can be easily confused with normal sad feelings associated with disappointing or traumatic events, clinical depression is an ongoing condition. Different types of depression keep sufferers from functioning normally and usually won’t go away without treatment.

Depression manifests itself in a variety of ways. What is depression, exactly? According to the DSM-IV, a person experiencing at least five of the following depression symptoms at the same time is suffering from the condition:

  • You feel miserable and sad.
  • You feel exhausted a lot of the time with no energy.
  • You feel as if even the smallest tasks are sometimes impossible.
  • You seldom enjoy the things that you used to enjoy – you may be off sex or food or may ‘comfort eat’ to excess.
  • You feel very anxious sometimes.
  • You don’t want to see people or are scared to be left alone. Social activity may feel hard or impossible.
  • You find it difficult to think clearly.
  • You feel like a failure and/or feel guilty a lot of the time.
  • You feel a burden to others.
  • You sometimes feel that life isn’t worth living.
  • You can see no future. There is a loss of hope. You feel all you’ve ever done is make mistakes and that’s all that you ever will do.
  • You feel irritable or angry more than usual.
  • You feel you have no confidence.
  • You spend a lot of time thinking about what has gone wrong, what will go wrong or what is wrong about yourself as a person. You may also feel guilty sometimes about being critical of others (or even thinking critically about them).
  • You feel that life is unfair.
  • You have difficulty sleeping or wake up very early in the morning and can’t sleep again. You seem to dream all night long and sometimes have disturbing dreams.
  • You feel that life has/is ‘passing you by.’
  • You may have physical aches and pains which appear to have no physical cause, such as back pain.

If you are experiencing at least five of these symptoms almost every day for at least two weeks, you may be suffering from depression. Talk to a friend or family member and seek help from a doctor or therapist to resolve these depression symptoms.