Chlamydia In Men: What’s The Comparision With Chlamydia In Women?

While it seems that the rate of Chlamydia infection risk in women is higher than in men, the Chlamydia here is  more common than any other male sexually transmitted disease, with millions of new reported cases each year. 

Chlamydia is a sexually transmitted infection (STI) caused by a tiny bacterium, Chlamydia trachomatis. In case of men suffered from Chlamydia, the bacterium will affect to inside the urethra, the tube through which men urinate and pass sperm; in women the primary infected site is on the cervix, which is the opening between the uterus and the vagina.

During unprotected sex these bacteria will transfer through genital fluids from one partner to the other. Unprotected anal sex, whether by gay or straight partners, also puts man at risk of contracting chlamydia.

Men with Chlamydia symptoms may experience:

  • Irritation of penis – the tip and opening of the penis may feel itchy much or all of the time, or even become a sharper burning pain. There may be some reddishness or inflammation around the opening, but this is more often caused by scratching or rubbing the itchiness rather than by the infection itself.
  • Painful urination – the penis may or may not itch or burn generally during the day, but upon urinating you may feel pain or even intense burning, sometimes making urination a very painful and dreaded ordeal.
  • Frequent urination – you may begin needing to urinate more often than you used to.

For diagnosis and treatment, the only way to detect Chlamydial infections is by requesting a particular type of test . Both men and women, especially young group aged under 25, should be annually tested for Chlamydia, which is quite simple and it might be taken in the form of a urine sample or a swab from the cervix (in women) and urethra (in men). Once detected, the infection is very easy to cure with antibiotics.

Without treatments, men can have complications as serious as affection of sperm function and male fertility. Left untreated Chlamydia can be cause of inflammation in the testicles and sperm-conducting tubes (epididymo-orchitis) in men under the age of 35. Symptoms include pain and swelling in the scrotum. Chlamydia can also trigger joint inflammation in some men.

Here are the advices for men:

Should and always faithful with one partner. In other condition, use condoms with new sexual partners. Before you stop using condoms, make sure you and your partner get checked out for STIs by your local GUM clinic.

The key depend on awareness of safe sexual life of both men and women.

Vanigal yeast infections basic for women

What is vanigal yeast infections?

Yeast is a fungus that are found living in the vanigal. If yeast grows with a small number, the condition is normal. However, if there are too many yeast found in, it is vanigal yeast infection which happens commonly to women.

Although this infection is not too serious to scare, it often bothers the infected women a lot.

When can you be put on alert of vanigal yeast infections?

From moderate to severe yeast infection, the women can suffered from itching or soreness in the vagina and sometimes pain or burning when you urinate or have sex. Some women also have a thick, clumpy, white discharge that has no odor and looks a little like cottage cheese.

What cause the yeast infections?

This infection is due to the imbalance between number of bacteria and yeast cells. That means, the most common bacteria, Lactobacillus acidophilus, which keeps female vanigal healthy, in case of infection, can not control the yeast cells and let them develop too much causing to symptoms.

What should you do in case of diagnosed?

You are now knowing the symptoms of vanigal yeast infection as above. So, when feeling some strange syndrome like those, especially after your period or having sex, see a doctor and take a vanigal exam if necessary.

What treatments are available for infected cases?

It is normal if you sometimes feel a mild itching or soreness in your vanigal and these symptoms will stop after a few day. So, to ensure whether you have yeast infection or not, let wait for days for symptoms to be cleared up. Commonly, most of infected cases belong to those are in pregnant.
Later on, it is time to take some treatments. Simply, if this is the first time you have the infected-like symptoms, you can take a home remedy by using medicines from pharmacy indicated under many forms such as antifungal cream, suppository or antifungal tablets.

How can yeast infections prevented?

The answer is depending on your own sanitary works. Nothing can not be better than keep your vanigal in a healthy condition all time. It requires you:

  • to wear cotton, not nylon, underwear, and avoid tight-fitting pants and panty hose.
  • to change out of a wet swimsuit right away.
  • to avoid douches and feminine sprays, scented toilet paper, and deodorant tampons.

A way to control AIDS virus

A method has been found to keep immune system from damages by HIV virus and it would be the new discovery for a vaccine against AIDS, scientists said.

The research shown unveiled that if cholesterol is removed from the HIV virus’s membrane, the virus is unable to be harmful for the immune system, reported the researchers from United States and Europe working in laboratories on the HIV.

Adriano Boasso of Imperial College London, the study team leader, said that “It’s like an army that has lost its weapons but still has flags, so another army can recognize it and attack it” .

In the next time, the researchers hope this method possibly developed into a vaccine to treat HIV virus.

In fact, the immune system of newly HIV-infected patient response an immediate defense known as the adaptive immune response which is believed to overreact caused by HIV virus.

In this study – published on Monday in the journal Blood – that removing cholesterol from the membrane around the virus would stop HIV from triggering the innate immune response. This in turn led to a stronger adaptive response, orchestrated by a type of immune cells called T cells.

Currently known HIV drugs are Gilead Bristol Myers Squibb, Merck, Pfizer and GlaxoSmithKline. Up to now, there are still limited successes in inventing a HIV against vaccine. It is a really hard matter for scientists from companies, non-profits and governments around the world.

“HIV is very sneaky,” claimed Boasso. “It evades the host’s defenses by causing overblown responses that harm the immune system. It’s like revving your car in first gear for too long — eventually the engine blows out.

Therefore, it has been proved that it is so complicated to grow a vaccine.”Most vaccines prime the adaptive response to recognize the invader, but it’s actually hard for this to work if the virus triggers other mechanisms that damage the adaptive response.”
The study shows that HIV takes its membrane from the cell that it infects. This membrane consists of cholesterol, which allows keep it fluid and enables it to interact with certain types of cell.
Normally, plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDCs), a subset of immune cells recognizes HIV quickly and reacts by producing signaling substances called interferons. These signals activate various processes which are initially helpful, but which damage the immune system if switched on for too long.
According to the Boasso’s team, if cholesterol is removed from HIV’s envelope, it will inactivate pDCs. As a result, T cells, which set up the adaptive response, can fight the virus more effectively as working with scientists Johns Hopkins University, the University of Milan and Innsbruck University,

 

 

 

 

Vitamin C Helps Prevention and Treatment for Sepsis

Sepsis is a dangerous illness in which the bloodstream is flooded with bacteria. Common symptoms of sepsis include shock, confusion, blood pressure drop, hyperventilation, or organ failure. Sepsis often attack babies, the elderly and those with weakened immune systems. But even healthy people can become deathly ill from the disease.

Up to now, there has been no effective treatment for sepsis. So the mortality rate of people with sepsis is very high, nearly 40%. Now scientists have discovered a possible safe and inexpensive treatment for this condition, vitamin C. Vitamin C can not only prevent the onset of sepsis, but can reverse the disease.

A patient with sepsis

Dr. Karel Tyml and his colleagues from University of Western Ontario and Lawson Health Research Institute were the first to discover the plugging of capillaries that prevent oxygenation and the supply of life-supporting materials to the organ tissue and stop the removal of metabolic waste product. Plugged capillaries are seen in organs of septic patients. These organs may eventually fail, leading to multiple organ failure and death.

The capillary plugging in sepsis is caused by oxidative stress and the activated blood clotting pathway. Once clotting has begun, the body can no longer remove toxins from the blood or cells. Dr. Karel Tyml’s team discovered oxidative stress can be prevented by a single bolus of vitamin C early at the time of induction of sepsis. Additionally, vitamin C reverses plugging by restoring blood flow in previously plugged capillaries.

This discovery may bring a safe and cost-effective to those with sepsis. More significantly, it is a good news for the patients in developing countries where expensive care is not available because vitamin C treatment is cheap and especially, it reduce the mortality of sepsis.

So take vitamin C daily in order to help prevent not only sepsis but also other diseases such as glaucoma, gingivitis and other infectious diseases.

 

Coconut Oil and Pneumonia Treatment

Pneumonia is a lung infection associated with fever, cough, chest pain and fast time breathing. For most people, pneumonia can be treated at home. But older adults, babies, and people with other diseases can become very ill and need to be in the hospital.


Coconut oil has been often known as a marvelous cure for beautifying and treat lots of such diseases as headache, atherosclerosis, osteophyte. Recently, a new use of coconut oil in medicine is recognized: it can offer pneumonia patients a faster and more complete recovery.

Coconut oil help children with pneumonia recover much faster. Further, it helps patients reduce fevers, clear breathing and normal blood oxygenation. That means the period of hospital stay of patients decreases and of course expenses for treatment reduces and exposure for the patient to a hospital environment is lessened.

Coconut oil itself is not as expensive as traditional antibiotics. Especially, it has no known side effects.

That is indeed a good news for young patients, especially in developing countries where pneumonia is a leading cause of mortality in children.

Researchers are still looking for coconut oil’s secret. The answer may lie in lauric acid, an antimicrobial substance found in coconut oil. It may boost the body’s immune system and the effectiveness of the antibiotics administered for treatment.

Although coconut oil is considered helpful for children with pneumonia, parents should not try to force their child to take the oil if they don’t want it. If the child choked on the oil, it could be aspirated in the lungs. This could cause serious problems. Instead, you can mix the oil with food but pay attention to the child’s age and weight to take a proper dose.

 

 

Ginseng and the Treatment of Lyme Disease

Lyme disease is an infection that derives from a tick bite. The disease has a variety of symptoms, including changes affecting the skin, heart, joints and nervous system. It is also known as borrelia or borreliosis.

There are a great deal of natural supplements available used to treat Lyme disease like  amino acid supplements or Omega-3 essential fatty acids (EFAs). The working principle of these is to support the immune system and help your body to heal itself. Recently, ginseng has been suggested to treat Lyme disease.

Effects of ginseng

Ginseng

In the East, ginseng has been used as a precious herb to boost energy and treat various diseases for a long time. There are several varieties including Panax ginseng (which is the Chinese version) and Siberian ginseng (Eleutherococcus senticosus). Now it is used widely in the West.

Ginseng is so versatile that once it is in the body it will adapt in a number of different ways depending on the conditions. So it is known as an adaptogen. It is used to help relieve a very wide range of symptoms from depression through to hormone imbalances.

In general, ginseng is able to stimulate the body’s own natural systems. But if you take too much ginseng, it can cause side effects such as palpations, sweating, nausea and headaches.

Ginseng and Lyme disease

Like other herbs, ginseng has ability to boost the immune system. It helps the body to fight Lyme disease naturally and eradicate this infection. If left untreated this infection can spread into the vital organs and cause a number of serious symptoms including impaired mental function and problems with the central nervous system.

It can be combined with other treatments to help defend the body against Lyme disease’s symptoms including fatigue, headaches and joint pain. It boosts the patient’s energy and stamina in order to combat the fatigue. It is able to support brain health and improve mental function.

Dosage

Take ginseng taken in capsule or liquid form of around 250 to 500mg per day. Or take ginseng root steep ½ teaspoon in a cup of hot water and drink as a refreshing tea once or twice a day. Pay attention, do not take ginseng too much to avoid side effects such as diarrhoea, indigestion and headaches

 

 

Natural Antibody and A New Hope for Influenza Prevention

Influenza is a viral infection that affects mainly the nose, throat, bronchi and, occasionally, lungs. Infection usually lasts for about a week, and is characterized by sudden onset of high fever, aching muscles, headache and severe malaise, non-productive cough, sore throat and rhinitis.

Annually thousands of people die due to flu related problems. Vaccination is the only way to protect the spread of influenza virus. But existing vaccines work only against the narrow set of flu strains that the vaccine makers predict will dominate in a given year. Therefore they bring effectiveness temporarily. Lately, scientists at the Scripps Research Institute and the Dutch biopharmaceutical company Crucell have discovered broadly acting antibody against influenza virus which may offer hope for a near-universal flu vaccine.

In generally, current influenza vaccines provide little or no protection against unforeseen strains. Flu virus has a basic defense mechanism. The Crucell scientists conducted this research to find and and attack relatively unvarying and functionally important structures on flu viruses.

Influenza Vaccine (H1N1)

By sifting through the blood of people who had been immunized with flu vaccines, the scientists discovered an antibody that bound to one such vulnerable structure. This antibody called CR6261, could prevent or cure an otherwise-lethal infection by about half of flu viruses in mice, including H1 viruses such as H1N1, strains of which caused deadly global pandemics in 1918 Spanish Flu and 2009 Swine Flu global pandemics.

In 2009, Wilson team showed the influenza subtypes neutralized with the new antibody include H3N2, strains of which killed an estimated one million people in Asia in the late 1960s. The Crucell researchers approached Wilson’s findings and discovered the binding site, or “epitope,” turned out to be on HA’s lower, less-accessible stalk portion and the binding of CR6261 to that region apparently interferes with flu viruses’ ability to deliver their genetic material into host cells and start a new .

The Crucell researchers wanted to look for an antibody that could neutralize all of the remaining flu viruses unaffected by CR6261. They  furthermore found one CR8020, which they say powerfully neutralizes a range of human-affecting flu viruses, including H3 and H7 subtypes, in lab-dish tests and in mice. They utilized the same technique used with CR6261 and determined the antibody’s structure and its precise epitope on the viral HA protein.

The scientists hope if tests of the CR6261 and CR8020 antibody in human volunteers are successful, a vaccine the two antibodies could be combined and used in a “passive immunotherapy” approach. Its ultimate goal is to create an active vaccine that elicits a robust, long-term antibody response against those vulnerable epitopes.

 

A Future Treatment for Hepatitis C

A major breakthrough that may lead to the development of a new treatment for hepatitis C has been made by scientists at Trinity College Dublin, Ireland.

Hepatitis C

In Ireland, there are about 20,000 people infected with the virus that attacks the liver. This disease has drew more attention since the blood bank’s use of contaminated blood products. It is one of the most shameful episodes in the republic’s history. Most of those infected were women who received the anti-D product in the late 1970s and early 1990s to protect unborn babies. Other groups infected included people with haemophilia who received contaminated blood clotting products. Up to now, 188 people among 1,700 people known to have received blood or blood products contaminated with hepatitis C died.

Irish researchers have discovered a a mechanism which blood-borne virus uses to break the human immune system. The virus produces a protein called E2 switches off the ability of the body’s white cells to stimulate an immune response.

Scientists have found that a protein produced by the virus, called E2, switches off the ability of the body’s white cells to stimulate an immune response. When the E2 protein interacts with our white blood cells, it actually hits them and stops them from working.

This discovery is considered a hope for patients with hepatitis C. If scientists identify a way of reversing this inhibition, they are likely to produce new ways of treating hepatitis C virus by allowing the body’s immune response to do the work.

 

Conjunctivitis and Types of Treatment

Conjunctivitis is a common disease and treatments depending on which causes conjunctivitis.

Conjunctivitis or pink eye caused by inflammation of membrane covering white part of your eyes and the lining of inner surface of eyelids. The white part of the eye looks pinkish. It is not serious but quite irritating and uncomfortable.

There are many treatments depending on which causes conjunctivitis.

Treatment for bacterial conjunctivitis

For conjunctivitis caused by bacteria, broad spectrum antibiotic drops or ointment are usual common remedies (eg. chloramphenicol or fusidic acid). Cotton wool soaked in cooled boiled water should also be used for cleaning the eyes and removing any crusts or stickiness.

Treatment for viral conjunctivitis

Cotton wool soaked in cooled boiled water can not removing crusts and stickness but a lubricant ointment such as Lacri-Lube can make your eyes more comfortable or such cold compresses on the eyes and tablets as paracetamol and ibuprofen can relieve the symptoms.

In case the conditions goes on for a prolonged time, corticosteroid drops are advocated under the strict supervision of a doctor specialising in eye disease.

As conjunctivitis is a highly contagious condition, it is recommended a strict code of hygiene such as hand and face washing and no sharing of face towels be adhered to. In addition, avoid close contact with other people for the first one to two weeks to help prevent spread of the infection.

Treatment for Chlamydia conjunctivitis

Chlorotetracycline ointment to both eyes and tetracycline tablets are used to treat Chlamydia conjunctivitis. Children are recommended to use  erythromycin instead of tetracycline tablets. Chlamydia conjunctivitis may transmit through mucous membranes when having sex. In this case, the infection should be identified and both the patient and their partners must be treated.

Treatment for conjunctivitis caused by allergy

Firstly, what is triggering off the allergic response should be identified and from that remove this source of allergen.

Topical antihistamine drops are usually used to treat allergic conjunctivitis. Sodium cromoglicate drops can be used to prevent the allergic response and need to used for many weeks. However, corticosteroid drops should be used under the supervision of an ophthalmologist.

Treatment for infants with conjucntivitis

Infants with conjucntivitis need seening by an ophthalmologist. The treatment depends on the underlying cause of the conjunctivitis, based on results of the swabs from the laboratory.

Prevention

•        Keep hands and face hygienic. Do not share face towels, especially with someone having conjunctivitis.

•        Bath the eye with lukewarm salt water to remove pus and crust.

•        Use disposable tissues when you dry the eyes and throw them away after use.

•        Do not share eye make up or eye drops with another person.

 

Seven Important Facts about HIV

HIV is an epidemic that human is facing. Not only those living with the disease but also those who are not infected need understand it to stay healthy. Followings are ten facts about HIV that everyone should know.

1. The Biology of HIV

HIV stands for Human Immunodeficiency Virus. The HIV has two types: HIV-1 and HIV-2, in which HIV-1 is more infective and responsible for global infection. A HIV virus is about 60 times smaller than a red blood cell but has a unique structure and an incredibly fast replication system, which make it become immune to antiretrovirals.

HIV has four stages:

  • Stage 1: It is called the incubation period. This phase can last anywhere from about a few days to a few weeks with no noticeable effects.
  • Stage 2: Virus causes an acute infection may produce effects like fevers, sore throat, swollen lymph nodes, rash, weakness in the muscles and sores in the mouth and esophagus.
  • Stage 3: It is called  the latency period.  It can last a few weeks to a few years with the help of antiretroviral medications. The immune system rallies an attack against the virus, so few or no symptoms show up.
  • Stage 4: It is full-blown AIDS , which can also be fought with antiretrovirals.

2.  HIV’s Transmission

Not only gay men may be infected with HIV like in the beginning people believed. HIV can be transmitted three ways:

  • through unprotected sex where body fluids are exchanged
  • through an open-wound contact with infected blood
  • from mother to child in-utero, childbirth, or from breast-feeding

3.  HIV Pandemic

The World Health Organization lists 0.6% of the global population is infected with HIV and the number of people infected with HIV increases everyday. The developed countries have made great efforts and as a result, fewer people are dying of HIV-related illnesses. However, in the developing countries where resources for education, prevention, and treatment are limited, people are still dying. Currently where has the largest population of people living with HIV is the sub-Sahara of Africa with an estimated 21.6 to 27.4 million people infected with HIV, among of whom are 2 to 3 million children younger than 15 years of age.

4.  HIV’s Victims

Anyone regardless races, ethnicities, genders, and sexual orientations can get infected with HIV if they are exposed to it. The young, old, teens, babies, married and single may get the virus. People may be infected with HIV through various ways:

  • babies born by HIV-infected women,
  • those who have sex with infected persons,
  • anyone who share needles with needles with an infected person can,
  • people who get  a transfusion from an un-screened blood supply can

5. Main Cause of the Death of Those Infected with HIV

HIV is not often the main cause of the death in its victims. The victims’ immune system is weakened by the HIV virus to a point where an opportunistic virus attacks the body and causes death.

Tuberculosis (TB) is a disease that is spread from person to person through the air. Once it combines with HIV, the situation is extremely dangerous. Tuberculosis and HIV is a deadly combination. It is a deadly combination. In fact, worldwide TB is the leading cause of death among people infected with HIV.

6. Women with HIV and Breastfeeding

It can not deny the benefits of breastfeeding but if women who are living with HIV breastfeed, the risk to their babies is just too high. Unfortunately, some women being infected with HIV without clean water or resources for baby formula can not do anything but breastfeeding. This fact has contributed to the HIV severe situation in such places as Sub-Sahara Africa.

7. The Risk of Transmission from Mum to Baby

The risk of Transmission from Mum to Baby can be avoided. In fact, proper prenatal and postnatal care of mother and baby can reduce the risk of HIV transmission during pregnancy dramatically. If steps for decreasing that risk are not taken, the infection rate is about 1 in 4.