How to Control Atopic Dermatitis (AD)?

Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a very common, often chronic (long-lasting) skin disease that affects a large percentage of the world’s population. It is also called eczema, dermatitis, or atopy. It is most frequently seen in children, characterized by dry skin, eczema-type rashes and intense itching. It often appears on the face, elbows and knees, among other parts of the body.

While there is no “cure” for atopic dermatitis, the following tips can bring atopic dermatitis under control.

  1. Consult your pediatrician if any any skin rash breakout or irritation in your child to gets the situation under control.
  2. Observe your child to prevent from scratching, one of the main problems of AD. If your child scratches when feeling itchy, he/she is itchier and gets other further damage to his/her skin.
  3. Remove labels on your child’s clothes if the items in garments make a breakout in your child. Also avoid tight, rough or scratchy clothing and use hypoallergenic detergents in either liquid or powder form to reduce irritation.
  4. Let teachers know because children’s academic performance can be sometimes affected due to sleeping disorders associated with the condition.
  5. Follow a moisturizing routine throughout the whole year because both air conditioning in summer and central heating in winter can cause skin dryness and provoke skin irritation. Ensure that your child does not get sunburned and that their sunscreens are suitable for sensitive skin in summer, and keep him/her warm in winter.
  6. Be careful of milk, eggs, citrus fruits, chocolate, peanuts and some artificial colors because they are problematic foods which can trigger a flare-up of eczema in about ten percent of children.
  7. Have your child take bath with lukewarm. Avoid soap products and after bathing, dry without rubbing the towel against the skin and apply the cream recommended by your pediatrician.

 

 

Skin Infections Can Spread Easily Among Athletes

FRIDAY, Feb. 11 (HealthDay News) — In addition to the collegiality and competitive spirit that typifies team sports, one dermatologist cautions that players may be sharing something far less desirable: contagious skin infections.

But outbreaks of herpes, ringworm and MRSA are preventable, dermatologist says

“Outbreaks of ringworm, herpes and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) have occurred at the high school, collegiate and professional level throughout the world,” dermatologist Dr. Brian B. Adams, an associate professor of dermatology at the University of Cincinnati School of Medicine.

“These skin conditions are highly contagious and can spread through sports teams quite quickly, especially if they are not immediately diagnosed and contained. That is why athletes need to be aware of these risks and how to spot the warning signs of a skin infection,” he noted.

Adams is scheduled to discuss the role played by bacterial, viral and fungus-based infections in team sports this week the American Academy of Dermatology annual meeting in New Orleans.

The physical contact (and subsequent skin trauma) at the heart of many team sports are the driving forces behind such skin infections, he notes, as is the use of shared facilities and equipment, in addition to some cases of poor hygiene.

By way of example, Adams noted that wrestlers face a risk for spreading the bacterial infection known as impetigo, marked by blister and itchy, honey-colored, crusty red areas, while football is the most common vehicle for the spread of MRSA, a staph infection resistant to many antibiotics.

On the skin, MRSA may resemble a pimple, boil or abscess that itches or hurts. In the early stages, most are treated easily, but in the rare case that the infection becomes systemic, it can be life-threatening.

In an earlier published review, Adams found shared equipment, hygiene and even artificial turf burns can increase the risk of developing MRSA.

Skin-to-skin contact is the most likely way to spread MRSA, although shared equipment also plays a role, says Dr. Stanley Deresinski, a Stanford University infectious disease specialist and pro sports consultant. “These days, whenever you suspect staph, you should suspect MRSA,” he adds. “Whenever there is a boil, pimple or rash that is red, painful, lumpy or hot to the touch, or if there are systemic problems, you should seek medical help.”

On the viral front, herpes is a major concern, because the blisters and sores it causes can occur anywhere on the skin.

“Herpes simplex is so common among wrestlers where skin-to-skin contact is unavoidable that the condition is termed herpes gladiatorum,” said Adams. “Treatment includes oral antiviral medications and the athlete can return to practice and competition after four to five days of treatment. Wrestlers who spar with an infected partner have a one-in-three chance of contracting this skin infection, so it is crucial that the virus is treated and athletes avoid competition during the period of infection.”

Not to be minimized, warns Adams, is the threat of the rashy fungal infection “tinea corporis,” better known as ringworm, which commonly takes root on the head, neck and arms following contact with an infected individual. (Ringworm usually appears as a red, circular rash with clear skin in the middle.)

“Any athlete with skin-to-skin contact could develop ringworm,” noted Adams, “but the intensity of close contact and exposed skin makes wrestling the highest risk sport for this particular fungal infection. Early detection and treatment are essential in containing the spread of infection, and currently there are no evidence-based recommendations as to how long athletes with ringworm should avoid competition.”

Athlete’s foot is another fungal risk, since sweaty feet are an ideal environment for the darkness-seeking fungus to proliferate. The best prevention, says Adams, is to use moisture-wicking socks, wear flip-flops in the locker room and shower immediately after exercise.

Adams says that athletes, coaches and trainers alike need to be informed about such risks so they can learn how to prevent them and seek medical help if skin infections do appear.

More information

For more on skin infections and athletics, visit the New York State Department of Health.

SOURCE: American Academy of Dermatology, news release, Feb. 4, 2011

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Not All Birthmarks Harmless, Expert Says

WEDNESDAY, Feb. 9 (HealthDay News) — About one in 10 infants develops a vascular birthmark at birth or soon after. Though typically harmless, some may need treatment because of location and growth patterns, a dermatologist suggests.

Because of size and potential growth pattern, some may need dermatologist’s assessment.

“There are several different types of birthmarks, so it is important to determine the type of birthmark before considering any possible treatments,” dermatologist Dr. Sheila Fallon Friedlander, a professor of clinical pediatrics and medicine at the University of California San Diego, said in a news release from the American Academy of Dermatology.

“Most birthmarks pose no risks to infants and are best left untreated,” she noted, “but some can grow and potentially cause complications, particularly if they occur around the eyes, lips, nose or groin area. In addition, any lesion that has the potential to ulcerate should be monitored.”

Friedlander was scheduled to discuss the issue this week in New Orleans at the annual meeting of the American Academy of Dermatology.

Birthmarks are typically red, white or brown, noted Friedlander, who is also section chief of pediatric dermatology at Rady Children’s Hospital in San Diego.

Among the red variety, “infantile hemangiomas” are the most common, and typically take the form of a strawberry-shaped small bump or flat spot. Though they can grow through the first six months of life, dermatologists can usually assess ultimate size by the third or fourth month.

“Over time, most infantile hemangiomas will disappear on their own, but there are instances where dermatologists will recommend treatment,” she noted. “For example, if an infantile hemangioma occurs around the eyes, it can obstruct and prevent normal visual development if left untreated, or, if they occur in the groin area, they can become inflamed and then cause pain to the child.”

The use of propranolol, a drug used to treat high blood pressure, is considered a recent breakthrough in preventing and shrinking hemangiomas. However, the medication needs to be closely monitored because of potential side effects, Friedlander said.

“Depending on their size,” she added, “some facial birthmarks may leave behind a scar or saggy skin after they disappear. That is why it is often important for parents to consult a dermatologist as soon as their baby develops a birthmark, so it can be properly evaluated to determine if treatment is necessary.”

Friedlander further noted that in certain instances a large birthmark of this kind can indicate a serious health issue known as PHACES, which is associated with a risk for heart, eye, blood vessel and/or brain abnormalities.

So-called “port-wine stains,” which may slowly darken and thicken with time, are another physical and emotional concern, as they typically materialize on a child’s face and do not disappear on their own. Small brown moles, which carry a slight risk for developing into melanoma, can be an additional issue, as are white birthmarks which are generally harmless (aside from potential pigmentation complications) and far less common than the red variety.

Treatment depends on the type of birthmark, Friedlander noted, and steroids, oral and topical medications, surgical excision and laser therapy are all tools that a dermatologist can utilize to address birthmarks.

More information

For more on birthmarks, visit the American Academy of Dermatology.

SOURCE: American Academy of Dermatology, news release, Feb. 4, 2011

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Pain Patches Making Gains in U.S.

FRIDAY, Jan. 21 (HealthDay News) — Americans suffering from muscle pain are used to taking a pill or rubbing in a cream to help soothe their aches.

Advocates say option offers convenience, fewer side effects, more consistent relief.

But a new form of pain relief seems to be catching on: analgesics delivered through a medicated patch placed directly where it hurts.

The U.S. Food and Drug Administration approved the country’s first over-the-counter, pain-relieving transdermal patches in 2008. But the patches, marketed under the brand name Salonpas, are nothing new. They’ve been sold in various countries in Asia since the 1930s, according to their manufacturer, the Japanese firm Hisamitsu Pharmaceutical.

“Salonpas is the Western world catching up with Asia,” said Dr. Rick Rosenquist, a professor of anesthesia and director of pain medicine at the University of Iowa Carver College of Medicine and chairman of the American Society of Anesthesiologists’ committee on pain medicine.

“If you are an Asian kid, you’ve had these placed on you since time immemorial,” he said. “It’s just now starting to hit more mainstream in the United States. They’re gaining more acceptance.”

Before the FDA action, pain-relieving patches were available in the United States only by prescription, said Dr. John Dombrowski, director of the Washington Pain Center in Washington, D.C. Their active ingredients include such medications as lidocaine, capsaicin and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, or NSAIDs. The active ingredients in Salonpas are methyl salicylate and menthol, common components of pain-relieving gels and creams, such as Bengay.

Pain patches have a number of benefits, Rosenquist and Dombrowski said, not the least of which is convenience. With a patch, you “put [it] on and forget about it, rather than having to remember to take pills,” Dombrowski said.

The patches also deliver their medicine directly to the site of a person’s pain. This may eliminate some of the side effects that come with taking pills. For instance, some analgesics are likely to cause an upset stomach unless they’re taken with food. “Obviously, patches get around that,” he said. “It’s a very clever way of getting the medications right where they need to be.”

And, because patches release their medication slowly into the body through the skin, people also should get more consistent pain relief than they do with pills.

On the other hand, people have to be sure to carefully follow instructions for using the patches, to avoid overdose.

The main downside to pain patches, however, apparently comes from their effect on the skin. Some people may find themselves allergic to either the active ingredient in a patch or the adhesive used to keep the patch on the body.

“You need to pay attention when you put them on, to see if you have any kind of skin reaction to the compounds that are contained in the patch,” Rosenquist said.

Both doctors said that they expect more over-the-counter pain patches to hit the market if the popularity of Salonpas continues to grow. Future over-the-counter options, they predicted, could include reduced-dosage versions of the NSAID-delivering patches now available through prescription.

“Success begets success,” Dombrowski said. “If this does very well, other drug companies will say, ‘I want a piece of this action.'”

More information

The U.S. National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke has more about pain.

SOURCES: Rick Rosenquist, M.D., professor, anesthesia, and director, Center for Pain Medicine and Regional Anesthesia, Carver College of Medicine, University of Iowa, Iowa City, Iowa; John Dombrowski, M.D., director, Washington Pain Center, Washington, D.C.

Copyright © 2011 HealthDay. All rights reserved.

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Thorough Exams a Must for Those at High Risk of Skin Cancer

MONDAY, Jan. 17 (HealthDay News) — Patients at high risk for melanoma benefit from a follow-up program that can detect the deadly skin cancer at an early stage, new research finds, while a second study notes that embarrassment prevents some people from having a doctor examine their skin for suspicious lesions.

Two studies highlight the importance of annual skin screens, even if patients are reluctant.

Both studies appear in the journal Archives of Dermatology.

People at high risk for melanoma, the most deadly form of skin cancer, include those with fair skin, blond or red hair, blue eyes, freckles and/or a family history of the disease, as well as those who have been exposed to artificial UV-A radiation or who have suffered severe sunburns, especially during childhood.

“Patients who are at high risk, who fit this profile, should be routinely screened [for skin cancer] annually along with other surveillance measures for colon cancer, mammograms, etc.,” advised one dermatologist, Dr. Michele Green of Lenox Hill Hospital in New York City. She was not involved in the new research.

The first study, conducted in Spain, included 40 melanoma patients who were in a special follow-up program designed for high-risk individuals, as well as 161 melanoma patients who were simply referred to another clinician in the same hospital. All the melanoma diagnoses were made using dermoscopy, a noninvasive microscopic evaluation of a skin lesion.

The researchers found that only 12 percent of melanomas diagnosed in the follow-up program fulfilled all four criteria for melanoma detection: asymmetry, uneven borders, colors, and differential dermoscopic structures, compared with almost 64 percent of melanomas diagnosed in the doctor-referred group.

In addition, 70 percent of melanomas diagnosed in the follow-up group had not spread beyond the initial site, compared with about 28 percent of those in the referred group. Tumors also tended to be thinner in the follow-up group.

In the follow-up group, melanomas were diagnosed at the earliest stages: 70 percent at stage zero and 30 percent at stage IA. In the referral group, about 28 percent of melanomas were diagnosed at stage zero, 37.6 percent at stage IA, nearly 13 percent at stage IB, about 11 percent at stage II, 8.5 percent at stage III, and 2.4 percent at stage IV.

The study was published online Monday but will appear in the journal’s May print edition.

The second study, appearing in the January issue of the journal, found that patient embarrassment, time constraints and other health conditions may prevent doctors from conducting regular full-body skin examinations of their patients.

It also found that dermatologists are much more likely than internists and family doctors to conduct these screenings for skin cancer.

Researchers analyzed survey responses from 679 dermatologists, 559 family practitioners (doctors specializing in family medicine), and 431 internists from across the United States. The results showed that regular full-body skin examinations of patients were conducted by 81.3 percent of dermatologists, compared to only 59.6 percent of family practitioners and 56.4 percent of internists.

The most common reasons for not performing this type of examination were patient embarrassment/reluctance, time constraints, and other patient illnesses.

Time constraints were cited by 54.5 percent of internists and 54.4 percent of family practitioners, as compared to only about 31 percent of dermatologists. Patient embarrassment/reluctance was cited by about 44 percent of dermatologists, nearly 33 percent of internists and just over 31 percent of family practitioners.

Identifying these barriers can help health providers overcome them, said a team led by Susan A. Oliveria of Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York City.

Green agreed that the full-body skin exam should be a must for anyone at risk of skin cancer.

“I have one rule in my office. All new patients need to get undressed and have a full skin examination. It says it on the paper work that patients read and sign at the time of the initial consultation,” she said.

“These screenings will be incredibly productive and save lives if these subset of patients are screened on a regular basis,” Green added.

More information

The U.S. National Cancer Institute has more about skin cancer.

SOURCES: Michele Green, MD, dermatologist, Lenox Hill HOspital, New York City; JAMA/Archives journals, news releases, Jan. 17, 2011

Copyright © 2011 HealthDay. All rights reserved.

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Actinomycosis: Causes, Symptoms and Treatment

Actinomycosis is an infection caused by a bacterium called Actinomyces israelii (A. israelii).

Actinomycosis (also known as Rivalta disease, big jaw, clams, lumpy jaw or wooden tongue) is an infection, commonly of the face and neck, that produces abscesses (collections of pus) and open-draining sinuses (tracts in the skin).

Actinomycosis is caused by a bacterium called Actinomyces israelii (A. israelii). It occurs normally in the mouth and tonsils. This bacterium may cause infection when it is introduced into the soft tissues by trauma, surgery or another infection. Once in the tissues, it may form an abscess that develops into a hard red to reddish purple lump. When the abscess breaks through the skin, it forms pus-discharging lesions.

Causes of Actinomycosis

Actinomycosis is caused by a strain of bacteria called actinomycetales. Actinomycetales are found in many of the body’s cavities, such as inside the mouth and less commonly the bowel.

In women, they can also be found in the womb and the fallopian tubes (through which eggs are released into the womb).

How actinomycosis spreads

Actinomycetales are anaerobic bacteria, which means they cannot survive in oxygen-rich environments. Therefore, they do not present a problem when they are in one of the body’s cavities, such as the mouth or the intestinal tract.

However, if actinomycetales break through the protective lining (mucus membrane) that surrounds the cavities, they can penetrate deep into your body’s tissue. As the deep layers of human tissue are low in oxygen, the bacteria are able to reproduce quickly and infect healthy tissue.

Abscesses

In an attempt to combat the infection, your immune system (the body’s natural defence against infection and illness) will send infection-fighting cells to the source of the infection. However, these cells do not have the ability to kill the bacteria and will quickly die.

Actinomycosis (lumpy jaw)

As the infection-fighting cells die, they accumulate into a yellowish-coloured liquid called pus. Having failed to kill the infection, your immune system will attempt to limit its spread by using healthy tissue to form a protective barrier around the pus. This is how a pus-filled swelling, known as an abscess, is formed.

Unfortunately, the actinomycetales strain of bacteria has the ability to penetrate the protective barrier of an abscess and move into more healthy tissue. Your immune system will attempt to counter the infection by producing more abscesses.

Sinus tracts

Your body will eventually need to get rid of the accumulation of pus. To do this, small channels called sinus tracts will develop that lead from the abscesses to the surface of your skin.

The sinus tracts will leak pus, as well as ‘sulphur granules’, which are a yellow, powdery substance. The sulphur granules are actually made up of lumps of bacteria, but they are known as sulphur granules as they are the same colour as the chemical sulphur.

Opportunistic infection

Actinomycosis is an opportunistic infection that does not cause any symptoms unless an opportunity arises for it to penetrate into the body‘s tissue.

Oral cervicofacial actinomycosis

Opportunities for oral cervicofacial actinomycosis include:

  • tooth decay – particularly if the decay is left untreated for many years
  • gum disease
  • dental abscess
  • tonsillitis
  • inner ear infection
  • dental surgery, such as a tooth extraction, or root canal treatment
  • jaw surgery

Thoracic actinomycosis

Most cases of thoracic actinomycosis are thought to be caused by small particles of food or other ingested material that get mixed up with the actinomycosis bacteria. Rather than passing harmlessly down into the stomach, the particles are mistakenly passed down into the windpipe and the airways of the lungs.

People with long-term drug or alcohol problems are particularly at risk of developing thoracic actinomycosis for two reasons:

  • being drunk or intoxicated increases your risk of accidentally ingesting material into your lungs
  • long-term drug and alcohol misuse weakens the immune system, which makes a person more vulnerable to developing an infection

Abdominal actinomycosis

Abdominal actinomycosis occurs when something tears the wall of the intestine (bowel), allowing the bacteria to penetrate into deep tissue.

The intestine can tear as a result of an infection, such as a burst appendix that damages the wall of the intestine. Or it can be damaged through injury – for example, when someone mistakenly swallows a fish bone.

There have also been some reported cases of abdominal actinomycosis occurring as a complication of bowel or abdominal surgery.

Pelvic actinomycosis

Most cases of pelvic actinomycosis have been recorded in women who were using the intrauterine device (IUD) form of contraception. The IUD is a small, T-shaped contraceptive device made from plastic and copper that fits inside the womb. The women affected tend to be long-term users of the IUD (eight years or more).

One explanation for the high number of cases of pelvic actinomycosis in women who are using the IUD is that over time the IUD may damage the womb lining, allowing bacteria to penetrate into deep tissue. However, no research has yet been done to find out whether or not this is the case.

It should be stressed that developing pelvic actinomycosis as a result of using an IUD is very unlikely. In England, millions of women use the IUD device and there have only been a handful of reported cases of pelvic actinomycosis.

Actinomycosis Symptoms

The list of signs and symptoms mentioned in various sources for Actinomycosis includes the 17 symptoms listed below:

* Symptoms of facial actinomycosis:
o Swollen jaw
o Jaw pain
o Tooth pain
o Pus in the mouth
* Symptoms of other abscesses:
o Pain
o Fever
o Weight loss
* Varies depending on site
* Commonly includes the mouth
* Rectum and vagina
* Fever
* Pain
* Abscess formation
* Weight loss
* Abnormal vaginal bleeding and vaginal discharge

Actinomycosis Treatment

Medical Care

In most cases of actinomycosis, antimicrobial therapy is the only treatment required, although surgery can be adjunctive in selected cases. Penicillin G is the drug of choice for treating infections caused by actinomycetes.

Surgical Care

Attempt to cure actinomycosis, including extensive disease, with aggressive antimicrobial therapy alone initially. Surgical therapy may include incision and drainage of abscesses, excision of sinus tracts and recalcitrant fibrotic lesions, decompression of closed-space infections, and interventions aimed at relieving obstruction (eg, when actinomycotic lesions compress the ureter).

Consultations

* Interventional radiologist
* Surgeon
* Infectious diseases specialist

Diet

No specific dietary precautions are indicated in patients with actinomycosis.

Activity

Patients with actinomycosis may be active to the degree tolerated.

Actinic keratosis: Causes, Symptoms, Diagnosis and Treatment

Actinic keratoses (AKs) are dry, scaly, rough-textured patches or lesions that form on the outermost layer of the skin after years of exposure to ultraviolet (UV) light, such as sunlight. These lesions typically range in color from skin-toned to reddish brown and in size from that of a pinhead to larger than a quarter. Occasionally, a lesion grows to resemble an animal horn and is called a “cutaneous horn.”

It is important that anyone with AKs be under a dermatologist’s care. AKs are considered the earliest stage in the development of skin cancer and have the potential to progress to squamous cell carcinoma, a type of skin cancer that can be fatal. Anyone who develops AKs has extensive sun-damaged skin. This makes one more susceptible to other forms of skin cancer, including melanoma. Melanoma is considered the most lethal form of skin cancer because it can rapidly spread to the lymph system and internal organs.

Causes of Actinic keratosis

Actinic Keratosis is seen especially in those who work outdoors, sailors, golfers, skiers and in those who have significant other recreational sun exposure.

The following are the two main causes of Actinic Keratosis:

Exposure To Carcinogenic Factors

A) Ultraviolet light – Most of this is from sunlight. Actinic keratoses are most commonly seen in fair skinned individuals who are unable to tan and is associated with an accumulated lifetime exposure to sun.

B) Ionizing radiation such as radiotherapy may also increase of skin cancers.

C) Chemicals such as arsenic increase the risk of skin cancers. Exposure is usually chronic and at low concentrations.

Genetic Syndromes

There are a number of rare genetic syndromes that increase the risk of skin cancer. For example, xeroderma pigmentosa results from a defect in DNA repair. This condition is associated with sun sensitivity, extensive freckling and the risk of all forms of skin cancers is up to 2,000 times that of the normal population.

Actinic keratosis Symptoms

The signs and symptoms of an actinic keratosis include:

  • Rough, dry or scaly patch of skin, usually less than 1 inch (2.5 centimeters) in diameter
  • Flat to slightly raised patch or bump on the top layer of skin
  • Lesion that may develop a hard, wart-like surface
  • Lesion that ranges in color from pink to red to brown, or flesh-colored
  • Itching or burning in the affected area

Actinic keratoses are found primarily on areas exposed to the sun, including your face, lips, ears, back of your hands, forearms, scalp and neck. There may be a single lesion or several lesions.

An actinic keratosis sometimes resolves on its own, but typically returns again after additional sun exposure. If just scratched or picked off, an actinic keratosis will return.

Actinic keratosis Diagnosis

Doctors can easily diagnose actinic keratosis by examination. A biopsy may be required if the keratosis is large or thick to determine if it in fact is cancer.

Actinic keratosis Treatment

Actinic keratosis treatment options may include:

  • Freezing (cryotherapy). An extremely cold substance, such as liquid nitrogen, is applied to skin lesions. The substance freezes the skin surface, causing blistering or peeling. As your skin heals, the lesions slough off, allowing new skin to appear. This is the most common treatment, takes only a few minutes, and can be performed in your doctor’s office.
  • Creams or ointments. Some topical medications contain fluorouracil, a chemotherapy drug. The medication destroys actinic keratosis cells by blocking essential cellular functions within them. Another treatment option is imiquimod (Aldara), a topical cream that modifies the skin’s immune system to stimulate your body’s own rejection of precancerous cells.
  • Chemical peeling. This involves applying one or more chemical solutions — trichloroacetic acid (TCA), for example — to the lesions. The chemicals cause your skin to blister and eventually peel, allowing new skin to form. This procedure may not be covered by insurance, because it’s considered cosmetic.
  • Scraping (curettage). In this procedure, your surgeon uses a device called a curet to scrape off damaged cells. Scraping may be followed by electrosurgery, in which a pencil-shaped instrument is used to cut and destroy the affected tissue with an electric current.
  • Photodynamic therapy. With this procedure, an agent that makes your damaged skin cells sensitive to light (photosensitizing agent) is either injected or applied topically. Your skin is then exposed to intense laser light to destroy the damaged skin cells.
  • Laser therapy. A special laser is used to precisely remove the actinic keratoses and the affected skin underneath. Local anesthesia is often used to make the procedure more comfortable. Some pigment loss and scarring may result from laser therapy.
  • Dermabrasion. In this procedure, the affected skin is removed using a rapidly moving brush. Local anesthetic is used to make the procedure more tolerable.

Talk to your doctor about your treatment options. The procedures have various advantages and disadvantages, including side effects, risk of scarring, and the number of treatment sessions required. Actinic keratoses are usually very responsive to treatment. Afterward you’ll likely have regular follow-up visits to check for new patches or lesions.

Acrodermatitis: Causes, Symptoms and Treatment

Acrodermatitis is a skin condition, experienced mainly by children, causing fever and discomfort.  It is most often present on the limbs, involving a bumpy skin rash.  It usually appears in connection with other diseases, such as Hepatitis B, Epstein-Barr virus infections, Cytomegalovirus, Coxsackie viruses, Para-influenza viruses, Respiratory syncytial viruses, and some other live virus vaccines.

Causes of Acrodermatitis

The cause of acrodermatitis is poorly understood, but its link with other infections is well- documented.

In Italian children, acrodermatitis is seen frequently with hepatitis B, but this link is rarely seen in the United States. Epstein-Barr virus (EBV, mononucleosis) is the virus most often associated with acrodermatitis. Other associated viruses inclcude, cytomegalovirus, coxsackie viruses, parainfluenza virus, respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), and some live virus vaccines.

A rare, genetic form of acrodermatitis is acrodermatitis enteropathica. In this disorder, zinc is poorly absorbed from the diet. Adding zinc supplements to the diet improves the condition. This form of the disorder can be associated with other abnormalities and development delays.

Acrodermatitis Symptoms

  • Rash or patch on skin
  • Brownish-red or copper-colored patch that is firm and flat on top
  • String of bumps may appear in a line
  • Generally not itchy
  • Rash looks the same on both sides of the body
  • Rash may appear on the palms and soles — it does not occur on the back, chest, or belly area (this is one of the ways it is identified — by the absence of the rash from the trunk of the body)

Other symptoms that may appear include:

  • Swollen abdomen
  • Swollen lymph nodes
  • Tender lymph nodes

How Acrodermatitis is treated?

Medical Treatment
Infections associated with acrodermatitis should be treated, although acrodermatitis by itself is generally not treated.

Natural Treatment
Many people have tried and been pleased with the results of using natural supplements, vitamins, and some healthy foods to combat the affects of acrodermatitis on the skin.

Supplements – Popular supplements used for the treatment of this disorder include both zinc and copper.

Vitamins Vitamins A, C, and E have been used by some to improve skin health and make skin more durable.  Vitamins E and C are both considered antioxidants that promote faster wound healing of the skin.

Foods – Foods thought to be good for the skin include oysters, liver, pumpkin, pecans, brazil nuts, and beef.

Complications
Complications do not occur with acrodermatitis but rather as a result of associated infections.

Acanthosis Nigricans: Treatment and Prevention

Acanthosis nigricans is a disorder that may start at any age. It causes velvety, light-brown-to-black, markings normally on the neck, under the weaponry or in the groin. Acanthosis nigricans is almost frequently associated with obesity. Some drugs, especially hormones such as human increase hormone or oral contraceptives, can too induce acanthosis nigricans. People with lymphoma or cancers of the gastrointestinal or genitourinary tracts can too produce serious cases of acanthosis nigricans. Most patients with acanthosis nigricans have a high insulin degree than those of the same weight without acanthosis nigricans. Elevated levels of insulin in most cases likely induce acanthosis nigricans.

Acanthosis Nigricans Video

Acanthosis nigricans can start at any age. It’s almost apparent in folk who have blue rind. Skin changes are the alone signs of acanthosis nigricans. Sometimes the lips, palms or soles of the feet are affected as easily. The skin changes seem slowly, sometimes over months or years. Rarely, the affected areas may itch. Most people with acanthosis nigricans have an insulin level that is higher than that of people of the same weight who don’t have acanthosis nigricans. Eating too much of the wrong foods, especially starches and sugars, and being overweight can raise insulin levels. When acanthosis nigricans is related to obesity, weight management is an important part of prevention. A diet that contributes to reduced insulin also can help prevent acanthosis nigricans. Acanthosis nigricans caused by medicine may go away once the medication is stopped.

Rarely acanthosis nigricans is associated with a tumor, almost usually of the abdomen or intestine. In these cases acanthosis can bee seen in additional places, such as the lips or hands and is remarkably serious. Occasionally acanthosis nigricans is inborn or payable to an endocrine disorder. Overweight individuals normally have advance if they suffer weight. In those who have a tumor or a gland disorder, correction of the underlying trouble will frequently heal the acanthosis nigricans. Because acanthosis nigricans itself normally simply causes changes to the show of the rind, no specific handling is needed. In some cases, acanthosis nigricans is inherited. Certain medications, such as human increase hormone, oral contraceptives and big doses of niacin can add to the circumstance.

People with acanthosis nigricans should be screened for diabetes and, although uncommon, cancer. Controlling blood glucose levels through drill and diet frequently improves symptoms. The condition can be diagnosed by a doctor through a medical history and physical examination. Blood work might be done to investigate the cause of acanthosis nigricans. Other hormone problems, endocrine disorders or tumors may play a role as well. Rarely, acanthosis nigricans is associated with certain types of cancer. It is important, however, to attempt to treat any underlying medical problem that may be causing these skin changes. Other treatments to improve skin appearance, including Retin-A, urea, alpha hydroxy acids, and salicylic acid prescriptions, may be helpful in some people. Dermabrasion or laser therapy may help to reduce the bulky portion of the affected skin.

Juliet Cohen – health-doctor.org

12 steps To Get Rid Of Acne

Acne affects people of all ages and all races, and treating it is a slow process that requires diligence and patience. Here are some tips to help you get started.

To complete these steps you will need:

A gentle facial cleanser
Warm water
A towel
Topical acne medication
Sunscreen
Patience
A tissue
Noncomedogenic cosmetics
Shaving cream with benzoyl peroxide
A dermatologist
Prescription acne medicine

Step 1: Wash morning & night

Wash your face with a gentle cleanser and warm water when you wake up in the morning and at night just before bed.

Tip: Don’t use harsh scrubs on acne—it will only irritate and inflame the acne.

Step 2: Pat face dry

Gently pat your face dry with a towel—don’t rub, or you can extract too much moisture from your face.

Tip: Be careful not to wash your face too much, which can irritate your skin. If you have oily skin, try blotting it with a clean tissue instead.

Step 3: Apply medication

Apply a topical acne medication, either one prescribed by your dermatologist or an over-the-counter cream, lotion, or gel containing benzoyl peroxide and salicylic acid.

Tip: Benzoyl peroxide reduces a certain kind of bacteria on the skin and salicylic acid helps unclog pores by correcting abnormal skin cell shedding, so one might work better for you than the other.

Step 4: Protect skin

Protect your skin with a non-comedogenic sunscreen and avoid excess exposure to sunlight. This is always important, but it is especially critical when you’re using topical or internal acne medication, which increases skin’s photosensitivity.

Step 5: Use right cosmetics

Use only non-comedogenic, water-based cosmetics that are oil-free. There are moisturizers and makeup formulated for acne-prone skin.

Step 6: Shave carefully

If you shave, do so carefully and sparingly. Shaving can easily irritate sensitive skin, so only shave when it is necessary and only in one direction.

Tip: Some shaving creams on the market contain benzoyl peroxide, so check the label.

Step 7: Don’t pop

Don’t squeeze, pop, or pinch acne. It can cause further inflammation and even permanent scarring.

Step 8: Avoid actions

Avoid actions that cause repetitive or prolonged contact with the affected area, like holding a phone against your face, wearing sports equipment, or resting your chin on your hand.

Step 9: Keep hair clean

Keep your hair clean and out of your face. The natural oils in hair can contribute to acne, as can hair products that contain oil.

Step 10: See dermatologist

If you take proper care of your skin but you still have outbreaks, schedule an appointment with a dermatologist. There are different types of acne that may require different approaches in treatment.

Step 11: Follow instructions

If you’re under a dermatologist’s care, follow his or her instructions carefully. If you’re prescribed an oral medication, take it regularly.

Step 12: Be patient

Be patient! Fighting acne is a slow process, and there is no quick fix or immediate cure. But sooner or later you’ll win the battle—and your skin will thank you for it.